Hazards that can arise from mishandling waste
• Proliferation of pests and disease transmission
• Pollution of land and groundwater
• Air Pollution
• River pollution
• Airways safety hazards
Waste Treatment Policy
The primary purpose of solid waste treatment policy is assuring that all the waste is treated in a way that does not lead to environmental hazards.
According to the policy, priority will be given to waste treatment methods, such as reclamation, recycling, reuse and reduction at source, in order to gradually reduce the amount of waste transferred to landfills to 50%, until 2017. Reclamation compensates the environment some of the resources being stolen from the environment, due to modern processes.
A little history
Until the early nineties, waste was removed to hundreds of messy dumps or landfills lacking adequate infrastructure, causing environmental damage such as:
• Pollution of water and land resources
• Air Pollution
• Airways safety hazards
A government decision from 1993 paved the way to regulating the situation. The decision included the following topics:
• The closure of the 500 operational dumps in Israel (of which 77 were medium to large and absorbed household waste on a daily basis).
• Opening a number of large central sites that meet all environmental requirements.
• Opening wastewater treatment plants (reclamation plants, sewage treatment plant)
• Assisting to local authorities in respect of the difference in the cost of transporting and landfilling, for a limited period.
• Promoting recycling and producing energy from waste.
• Establishing a government entity responsible for sewage and waste disposal.
The industry use about 5% of the total consumption of water in Israel, but releases about 21% of the wastewater. Dairy processing plant may release organic load wastewater in a quantity equal to that released by a city of 150,000 residents and result in considerable salinity of municipal wastewater.
In light of the contents of this section, there is a paramount environmental importance of recycling every amount of waste, regardless of the recycling method.
Of the annual amount of waste produced in Israel, approximately 5.5 million tons per year, the dairy and beef industry uses approximately 520,000 tons per year, representing nearly 10% of the total amount of waste produced.
Livestock Feed Byproducts
One commonly used method throughout the world, and in Israel in particular, is recycling industry by-products, making them unsuitable for use as livestock food.
The cow is a mammal with a unique digestive system, allowing it to use the waste and other by-products as a source of ingredients. A large part of the livestock feed in Israel is based on the use of by-products and other materials that can be consumed by livestock.
Israeli cattle breeders are aware of the options of exploiting alternative foods that reduce the costs of production in the barn. The use of by-products in livestock feed helps dairy farmers to lower costs while preventing environmental pollution. Using by-products accounts for about 10% of the feed ration per cow.
As mentioned, one of the most important economical and environmental topics in the Israeli agriculture and industry today is waste management and water quality. Food manufacturers today have to face higher costs of waste management and more stringent environmental regulations than in the past.
The use of by-products in livestock feeds is an efficient way to gain economic and environmental benefits to all parties concerned:
• Production plants can save destruction costs and maintain their vision as environmental trustees.
• Farmers can enjoy cheap food substitutes and of good quality.
• Most of the by-products became part of the food market after thorough laboratory testing and go through continuous laboratory review.
• Mainly due to a lack of understanding familiarity with the topic, many dairy farmers have concerns of immediate use of alternative livestock feeds.
The question is whether a by-product is safe to consume and whether cows would actually tend to consume it. Some by-products might contain toxic substances consumption inhibitors. Food groups’ analysis should be considered against livestock nutritional requirements. It is important to determine whether a by-product considered as a livestock feed indeed fits the needs and conditions of the specific feeding conditions. Many factors must be considered when assessing the suitability of a by-product as food.
Main factors under consideration regarding by-products when compounding rations for dairy cows, dry cows, calves and fattening in Israel
Many by-products contain more than 65% water, so strict moisture control and frequent ration correction are important to ensure that the animal reaches the desired level of consumption of all food groups. The moisture factor determines the degree of economic viability in view of the cost of livestock transportation, so most of the wet byproducts are fed provided to barns located as close as possible to the production plant.
The unique advantage of many by-products is that they can be used as a cheap source of important food ingredients consumed by cows. Higher concentration of nutrients in dry matter (by-products) leads to a higher value for the dairy farmer. Energy, protein, minerals and fiber content are common nutrients supplied through a by-product.
Adaptation for Livestock
Assessing a single by-product or more requires considering the following:
• Can a by-product provide food ingredients in a more cost-effective manner than other foods?
• Will livestock consume foods containing by-products?
• Does the by-product match the other ration ingredients? Does it match the feeding method?
• Is the current livestock feed knowledge available for managing feeding program, so that the use of by-products would be effective?
Effects on Consumption
Due to moisture content or certain food ingredients, some of the by-products, might limit food consumption, resulting in poor livestock performance.
One example of ingredient imbalance is feeding by-products which are high in fat. Fat alone, when exceeds 10% of the ration, might lead to reduction in food consumption and performance.
The same applies for the amount of sodium, calcium, etc. in the product.
In order for a by-product will be effective as livestock feed, it must not cause any health or safety problems. In addition, it must not contaminate the product being sold. It should be noted that in Israel there is no supervision on most of the livestock feed raw materials, including by-products.
When producing and using by-products, all parties involved must avoid contamination by pesticides, fungicides, metal objects, cartons, various other wastes and other materials that may endanger livestock or the final product.
Assessing a By-Product as Potential Food
Israeli food manufacturers use different approaches for determining the potential of by-products for use as livestock feeds. Normally they rely on the professional opinions of nutritionists, waste engineers, institutional consultants and the farm owners themselves. Laboratory analyzes are required to know the contents of moisture, protein, cellulose and cell wall, minerals and other elements found in the material. Also, laboratory tests are required to validate the absence of toxins or other contaminants.
Most Common Livestock Feed By-Products
Whey is a by-product of dairies that mainly produce hard cheese and cottage cheese. In the process of extracting cheese from milk, a milk-liquid is created in a large quantity and constant dry matter concentrations. Production of 1 kg yellow cheese results in the production of about 10 liters of whey.
Whey is marketed in a concentration of only 5% dry matter, and is transferred to barns and in tankers and is mainly given by sipping. Whey replaces 1.5 kg of dry matter of concentrated food. Lately, a number of consumers started using this product for feeding through the mixture.
Another product of this family is the concentrated Mother Liquor.
Concentrated Mother Liquor
The product is manufactured at the Tnuva’s plant: “Ba`Emek”, Alon Tavor industrial zone. The plant produces milk protein concentrates (82% protein, 74% protein) and concentrated milk sugar powders.
During production, the whey is concentrated to 26% dry matter by evaporation, and at this point production of lactose sugar and other products begins.
The remaining by-product is the Mother Liqueur which is the main mass in the process.
Mother Liqueur is highly rich in milk sugar, milk protein and available energy.
The product is marketed in tankers and fed in a mixture, rather than sipping.
The sogot is produced by Shibolet Dagan. It is composed of surplus milk from milk products produced in dairies throughout Israel, combined with grounded almond fennel.
The main ingredient of the sogot is "dairies curd" which constitutes about 65% of the sogot. The sogot is rich in protein, fat and energy and is therefore suitable for feeding the entire herd.
The sogot does not require storage compartment and can be stored anywhere in the food center.
Shelf life is up to one week. It is marketed throughout the year.
Corn Cluster Stalk
Corn cluster stalk is a by-product of the frozen and canned corn industry.
Corn cluster stalk undergoes various processing procedures, such as rinsing under hot water (cooking).
In Sunfrost there is a unique process of rinsing the corn under cold water to preserve the nutritional values.
Corn cluster stalk is suitable as a fresh product and as a silage.
Wheat bran is a by-product of the flour mills in Israel. The bran is the outer husk of the wheat grain and needs to be removed before milling.
The bran is available throughout the year and is used to feed livestock throughout Israel.
The bran is low in protein - about 14%, but is low-cost in relation to other grains.
Beer oilcake is a by-product of the Israel beer industry (Tempo and Carlsberg).
This product is marketed in a concentration of 23% dry matter and can be stored in every area of the center of the food.
The product is high in energy and protein (25%) and can be used as a substitute for 25% of the concentrated food. The material is marketed throughout the year.
The lime is a by-product of Gadot Biochemicals in Haifa.
The plant produces extracts of lemon and dissolved sugar; the lime is generated in the process. The lime is marketed in a concentration of 22% dry matter and contains about 12% protein.
The lime is similar to citrus peel in flavor and scent, but is drier, richer in protein and marketed throughout the year.
Its uses are similar to those of citrus peels, including covering silage pits.
Corn oilcake is a by-product of the corn starch and fructose produced by "Gilam" plant in Kibbutz Ma`anit.
Corn oilcake is marketed in a concentration of 40% dry matter and can be stored in every area of the center of the food.
The product is rich in corn protein (approximately 30%) has uniformity and regularity throughout the year.
Recommended by nutritionists 4-5 kg for a ration of a dairy cows.
Bakery Goods Leftovers (Bread)
Bakery goods leftovers are from bakeries around Israel.
This product has a short shelf life and is marketed for regular customers throughout the year.
Bakery leftovers are equal in value to grains and replace up to about 20% of the concentrated portion of the ration; they also have a cost advantage over grains.
Citrus peel is a by-product of the Israeli juice industry.
This material is marketed in concentrations of 13% to 18% dry matter, from October to March.
The product has a strong scent, which improves the deliciousness level and the general scent of the ration.
The product is acidic and can be used for direct feeding, manure acidification and as silage pits cover.
Tomato extract is produced in the process of producing ketchup and tomato juices.
This is a product with 14% dry matter and 30% protein. Since most of the protein is found in the small seeds of the tomato and considering that the cow cannot utilize the interior of the seed, the material is referred as containing 4% protein only.
This is a seasonal product that contributes to the flavor and scent of the mixture and is also used to cover silage pits.
Vegetables (potatoes, potato peels, celery, etc.)
Vegetables are marketed according to the seasons and supply and marketing.
Vegetables with high moisture content exchange about 10% of the concentrated food.
Cotton waste is a product that contains a reasonable amount of fiber and is used in many dairy farms as an inflating material, especially when the quality and sources of the rough food are of low quality.
Soybean hulls are separated from the soybeans at the beginning of the enriched soy meal production process.
This product is rich of cell wall, average amount of energy and soy source protein.
The material has a high-level uniformity and excellent absorbency. It is also used as a substitute for wheat.
Waste Management in Israel
Recycling Industry By-Products and Processing Them Into Livestock Feed
Waste is an inevitable product of modern society. Demographic growth and a rising standard of living and level of consumption demand heavy environmental cost, both in terms of natural resources and accumulation of consumption waste. In Israel, the quantity of waste increases by about 5% each year. Each resident produces daily average of more than two kilograms of waste. Overall, the quantity of accumulated waste is larger than 5.5 million tons per year.